Unlike other institutions of its kind, the Sri Aurobindo Ashram does not follow the tradition of a Guru succeeding as the spiritual head of the ashram. Even after their lifetime, the Mother and Sri Aurobindo are still the Ashram's only gurus and its raison-d'être. In fact, as the Mother herself once stated, Sri Aurobindo is still amongst us. Their works, which comprise several printed volumes, act as guide and inspiration to the sadhaks.

The Sri Aurobindo Ashram is administered by the Sri Aurobindo Ashram Trust, a public charitable trust formed by the Mother in 1955. This trust is managed by a board of five trustees. Inmates of the Ashram, known as "ashramites", work in any of several Ashram departments as a voluntary service to the community. The Ashram looks after their well-being by providing food, clothing and shelter as well as health-care. They receive "Prosperity" every month, which includes clothes, toiletries and other necessary commodities.